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Electrophysiological analysis of subclinical peripheral neuropathy in cases with type I diabetes mellitus

Santosh V Chidri, Vidya G.

Background: Diabetic neuropathy termed as an existence of peripheral nerve dysfunction in cases with diabetes mellitus (DM). Type 1 DM (T1DM) is commonly associated with diabetic neuropathy. Nerve conduction assessment plays key role evaluate the electrophysiological response of the nervous system to different stimuli.

Aim and Objective: This study was designed to assess the subclinical central and peripheral neuropathy in cases with T1DM.

Materials and Methods: A total of 120 cases diagnosed clinically with T1DM with no history of neuropathy were recruited. Demographic details, clinical history, and details of glycemic status were recorded from all the study participants. Nerve conduction study in sural nerve and visual evoked potentials were assessed.

Results: The mean difference of sural nerve conduction velocity and amplitude on the right leg and left leg was statistically significant between diabetic cases and control subjects (P < 0.005). The mean difference of P100 latency and amplitude on the right leg and left leg was statistically significant between diabetic cases and control subjects (P < 0.005).

Conclusion: Electrophysiological analysis is the most reliable and non-invasive modalities in the early diagnosis of changes in optic pathways and peripheral sensory nerves in T1DM. Nerve conduction assessment is considered as a gold standard technique in the quick diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy.

Key words: Nerve Conduction Velocity; Sensory Nerve; Visual Evoked Potential; Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

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