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Original Research



Association of Hypothyroidism with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, age, and gender – A descriptive study

Sajitha N.




Abstract

Background: A higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension has been observed among hypothyroid patients. Incidence of hypothyroidism is also, seen to occur more in women and with advancing age.

Aim and Objectives: The aims of the study were: (1) To determine the association between hypothyroidism and co-morbidities such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension and (2) to study the association of hypothyroidism with gender and age.

Materials and Methods: This hospital based, descriptive analytical study included 75 patients, of whom 25 had a history of hypothyroidism and 50 did not have hypothyroidism. Hypertension and diabetes were determined in all the patients by evaluating investigation reports and treatment history. Data were collected using pre-designed data entry form. Chi-square test was used to find association of hypothyroidism with selected variables. Multiple logistic regressions were used to predict, independent risk factors of hypothyroidism.

Results: Thirty-nine patients had diabetes and 41 had hypertension. Hypothyroidism was found to be significantly associated with diabetes mellitus (P = 0.014)), age > 60 years, (P < 0.01), and female gender (P < 0.01). No significant association was obtained between hypothyroidism and hypertension. By multiple logistic regression, age (> 60 years) (confidence interval [CI]-95%, Odds-14.16 [1.32–151.77]), and female gender were found to be independent risk factors for developing hypothyroidism (CI 95%, Odds-12.95 [2.76–60.84]).

Conclusion: Regular evaluation of diabetes mellitus may be done, in hypothyroid patients for early diagnosis, optimum treatment, and prevention of complications. Screening for thyroid function would be useful as part of routine investigations in elderly and in women to reduce morbidity and improve reproductive health in women.

Key words: Hypothyroidism; Diabetes Mellitus; Hypertension; Age; Gender






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