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Original Research

Role of Vitamin D and uric acid levels in serum to identify the risk of developing macular edema – A case–control study

Ramya K, Bhuvanendranath H, Raghunandana R, Shilpa M, Shravan Kumar.


Background: Diabetes mellitus is more prevalent in India and also an emerging epidemic across the world. Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus is associated with chronic microvascular complications including diabetic retinopathy. In patients with diabetic retinopathy, macular edema is one of the common causes of vision loss. Vitamin D has inhibitory role against inflammation and angiogenesis and uric acid are found to be associated with microvascular damage.

Aim and Objective: Our study was aimed to check the Vitamin D and uric acid levels in serum and its association with patients with macular edema and compare them with age-matched controls.

Materials and Methods: It is an observational case–control study. The study group consists of a total of 100 subjects. Among them, there were 50 patients in Group1 and 50 controls (selective age matched) in Group 2 enrolled into the study. Group 1 cases have diagnosed cases of macular edema including both males and females. After taking informed consent, detailed history taken and thorough ophthalmological examination was done, patients in Group 1 underwent optical coherence tomography scan to assess macular edema to detect central retinal thickness. Later, they were advised for Vitamin D and uric acid levels in serum in an advanced biochemistry laboratory. Data were expressed in mean ± SD and Student’s t-test was applied to compare groups. P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Uric acid levels were raised and Vitamin D levels were reduced in serum of patients with macular edema when compared to the age-matched controls and were statistically significant (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: Decreased Vitamin D levels and increased uric acid levels can be a risk factor for occurrence of macular edema in adults. Hence, serum Vitamin D levels and uric acid levels to be investigated for all patients with macular edema. It remains to be determined whether normalizing the serum Vitamin D and serum uric acid levels could improve visual acuity and prevent the occurrence of macular edema in the other eye.

Key words: Vitamin D; Uric Acid; Macular Edema

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