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Study of anemia in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects: A hospital-based study in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

Afreen Sajid, Shah Mohammad Abbas Waseem.


Abstract

Background: India is expected to be the Diabetic Capital of World in the coming years. Alarmingly by 2045, it is expected that 130 million Indians will be having diabetes. It alters the physiology of the human body and the associated renal insufficiency, inflammation, and oxidative stress further complicate the disease. Anemia is expected to be present in 11–65% of diabetics. Anemia in diabetics thus requires investigation and cannot be neglected.

Aims and Objectives: The present study was undertaken to study the anemia in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects.

Materials and Methods: The present study included 92 subjects divided into diabetic (n = 48) and non-diabetic (n = 44) groups. Hemoglobin (Hb) and blood indices (mean corpuscular volume [MCV], mean corpuscular Hb [MCH], and MCHC concentration [MCHC]) were compared and further evaluation was done on the basis of the severity of anemia (as per the WHO classification). Statistical unpaired t-test was employed for data analysis. P < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant.

Results: Among the diabetic group out of 48 subjects, mild, moderate, and severe anemia was present in 8 (Hb in g/dl was 11.25 ± 0.26), 11 (9.73 ± 0.83 g/dl Hb), and 4 (6.13 ± 1.15 g/dl Hb) subjects, respectively. In non-diabetic subjects, mild and moderate anemia was present in 5 (11.42 ± 0.33 g/dl Hb) and 7 (9.98 ± 0.83 g/dl Hb) subjects, respectively. Thus, in diabetics, the percentage of those having moderate anemia was more as compared to non-diabetics. In diabetics out of 48 subjects, 27 were female (56.25%) and 21 (43.75%) were male. Similarly, in non-diabetics, 28 (63.64%) were female and 16 (36.36%) were male. In the present study, the mean ± SD age (years) of diabetics and non-diabetics was found to be 44.17 ± 8.82 and 41.6 ± 8.80, respectively. The difference in mean ± SD values of Hb was found to be insignificant with P = 0.167. Similarly, insignificant differences were found between the mean ± SD values of blood indices, namely, MCV (P = 1.795), MCH (P = 0.897), and MCHC (P = 1.484), respectively, between diabetics and non-diabetics.

Conclusions: On the basis of the study, it may be concluded that female gender and the elderly are prone to anemia and thus are expected to be more prone to complications due to anemia in diabetes. The duration of diabetes is expected to influence the results and thus requires inclusion in the study design.

Key words: Hospital Based; Anemia; Diabetes; Renal Insufficiency; Inflammation; Gender; Hemoglobin; Blood Indices






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