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Leaf extract of Momordica charantia: Effects on liver enzymes, duodenum antioxidant enzymes, and disaccharidases with liver and duodenum histology

Olusoji Adebusoye Oyesola, Ifabunmi Oduyemi Osonuga, Olagboye Emmanuel Taiwo, Ifedolapo Ibukunoluwa-Gloria Owoeye.


Background: Momordica charantia (MC) plant rich in phytochemicals, promoting sound health conditions, contains nutritional and nutraceutical components. Its popular in traditional and folk’s medicine, extract is used to treat and remedy diseases. Adverse effects produce toxic symptoms in children and laboratory animals.

Aims and Objectives: The study investigated activities of liver enzymes, antioxidant enzymes, and disaccharidases in the duodenum and evaluated the histomorphological changes in the duodenum and liver of normal rats orally administered with aqueous leaf extract of MC.

Materials and Methods: Fifteen male Wistar rats weight between 150 g and 200 g used for this experiment were divided into three groups equally. Group A received only water and Groups B and C received 100 and 400 mg/kg body weight of extract orally for 21 days. Liver enzymes, duodenum antioxidant enzymes, and disaccharidases were determined using standard methods. Histology of duodenum and liver was studied with hematoxylin and eosin staining.

Results: Observation from statistically compared results showed that catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione in the duodenum reduced significantly. Malondialdehyde only increases in Group C but not significant. Maltase, sucrose, and lactase in the duodenum reduced significantly. Total protein, albumin, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase in the liver reduced significantly, alkaline phosphatase showed increase not significant for the two doses (P < 0.05). Histological study from duodenum and liver showed some degenerated villi, loss of epithelial cell, and goblet cells in the duodenum, central vein constriction with hepatocyte hypertrophy, degeneration, and sinusoid dilation.

Conclusion: MC has health benefits with ability to neutralized free radicals, preserve functions of liver and if care is not taken, it can induce negative histomorphological changes in the duodenum and the liver.

Key words: Duodenum; Enzyme activities; Histomorphology; Liver; Momordica charantia

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