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Seasonal variation of body fat percentage, basal metabolic rate, and serum lipid in healthy sedentary urban adults

John A. Lyngdoh, Happy Chutia, Donboklang Lynser, Alice Abraham Ruram, Rituparna Barooah.


Background: Animal physiology and behavior have indicated to be strongly influenced by change in seasons. In a similar way, the human body is also found to be sensitive to environmental changes like changes of seasons. Variation in conception, birth rate, immune responses, metabolism, and body composition has been shown to follow a seasonal pattern.

Aims and Objectives: Hence, the aim of the study is to determine if there is a seasonal variation of body fat percentage (BF%), basal metabolic rate (BMR), and serum lipids in healthy sedentary urban adults in two seasons, toward the end of summer and toward the end of winter.

Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study observing seasonal variation of BF%, BMR, and serum lipids in 30 healthy sedentary urban adults consisting of 23 males and seven females age 20–60 years. Anthropometric data such as age, sex, weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were taken and measured. Venous blood was collected for estimating fasting value of serum lipids. BF% was assessed by dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry scan. BMR was calculated from height, weight, and age using Harris–Benedict equation.

Results: Significant seasonal variation of BF%, BMR, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is seen in the overall participants. Significant seasonal variation of BF% and LDL is seen in the obese category of participants.

Conclusion: There is seasonal variation of BF%, BMR, and serum lipids between the end of summer and end of winter. There is also a positive correlation between body mass index (BMI) and BF%, BMR, and LDL and HDL. There is also a positive correlation between BF% and BMI, BMR, HDL, and LDL.

Key words: Basal Metabolic Rate; Body Fat Percentage; Seasonal Variation; Serum Lipids

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