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Assessment of Osteoporosis in Family Medicine Obtained by Ultrasound Densitometry

Esad Alibasic, Enisa Ramic, Olivera Batic Mujanovic, Enes Avdibasic, Damir Husic, Alma Alic.


Abstract

Introduction: Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by a decrease in bone mineral density, making bones become less rigid, and therefore susceptible to fractures, either spontaneously or with force, which is lower than otherwise needed for healthy bones fractured. Nearly 10% of the world population and 30% of women after menopause, suffer from osteoporosis. Clinical assessment of osteoporosis in family medicine is key to prevention, early detection and treatment of osteoporosis. Objective: To investigate the possibility of early detection and diagnosis of osteoporosis by analyzing the risk factors for osteoporosis and to compare the results with the parameters obtained by ultrasound densitometry of calcaneus, and determine the relationship of calcaneus densitometry with DXA findings, as the gold standard for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Patients and methods: The study included all patients of Family Medicine Kalesija Team 1, aged 50 years and over, a total of 711 patients, of whom 425 were women and 286 men. In all patients we assessed the existence of the following risk factors for osteoporosis: Constitutional: gender, age, weight, constitution, menarche and menopause, loss of height and stooped posture; Living habits: smoking, alcohol consumption, coffee, physical activity, and medications: long-term use corticosteroids, anticonvulsants, antacids, thyroid hormones. Comorbidity: history of fractures, hyperthyroidism, COPD, Chussing’s disease, diabetes. In the group of high-risk patients determined by the clinical assessment, quantitative ultrasound densitometry screening was carried out. Monitoring parameters derived with densitometry: the value of T-score, BUA (Broadband Ultrasound Attenuation), SOS (Speed ​​of Sound), QUI (Quantitative Ultrasound Index). To confirm the diagnosis of osteoporosis, in all patients with positive findings using ultrasound densitometry (T score lower than 2.5), another densitometry was performed by standard DXA method. Results: The incidence of osteoporosis was 96% in women and 4% in men. Differences in prevalence between men and women are statistically significant. People with and without osteoporosis significantly differ in gender, age, weight, constitution (BMI-Body Mass Index). The parameters that distinguish those with and without osteoporosis: age, weight, height, BMI, gender. Out of the total of 711 patients, in 11% of patients the clinical evaluation showed the existence of high risk of osteoporosis. In 9.8% patients, the values ​​were determined by ultrasound densitometry, where T score was lower than 2.5 what induces a high risk of fractures, and for 8.8% patients the DXA confirmed the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Conclusion: Clinical assessment of osteoporosis in the family medicine clinic performed in timely and focused history of risk factors for osteoporosis, with additional findings from quantitative densitometry of calcaneus, was sufficient for the early detection and screen

Key words: bone density, early detection, risk factors, quantitative ultrasound densitometry, osteoporosis






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The articles in Bibliomed are open access articles licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.