Background: Diabetes mellitus type 2 is associated with deteriorating blood sugar levels along with countless metabolic disorders. Treatment strategy plays a crucial role in achieving target blood sugar levels to reduce morbidity and early mortality. Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a chronic, long-term medical condition, in which the body does not produce insulin or is unable to utilize it properly resulting in uncontrolled blood sugar levels. Oral antidiabetic drugs are given as mono and combination therapy to achieve controlled blood sugar levels, based on the clinical conditions of each patient.
Aims and Objective: The purpose of our study is to compare the efficacy and adverse effects in monotherapy with that of combination therapy for oral anti-diabetics in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients.
Materials and Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study of 11 months period was conducted on 200 patients, in the Department of General Medicine of a Tertiary Care Hospital. Ethics committee permission was obtained from the institutional ethical committee before initiation of the study. Based on the oral anti-diabetic therapy pattern, patients were divided into three groups, Group 1 (Monotherapy), Group 2 (Dual therapy), and Group 3 (Triple therapy). Following inclusion and exclusion criteria, demographic parameters, and oral anti-diabetic therapy patterns were collected and assessed for efficacy and adverse effects.
Results: Among 200 patients studied, 50% received monotherapy (Group 1), 30% received dual therapy (Group 2), and 20% received triple therapy (Group 3) treatment. Fasting blood sugar, postprandial blood sugar, and glycosylated hemoglobin levels were monitored. Controlled blood glucose levels were achieved successfully in combination therapy groups and it was found to be more efficacious than monotherapy group. Patients on monotherapy had less adverse effects than combination therapy.
Conclusion: Combination therapy was substantial in controlling blood sugar levels compared to monotherapy. Combination therapy is a better treatment choice for diabetes mellitus type 2 patients. Adverse effects were reported fewer in the monotherapy group in comparison with combination therapy groups.
Key words: Monotherapy; Combination Therapy; Fasting Blood Sugar; Postprandial Blood Sugar; Glycosylated Hemoglobin; Adverse Effects