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A comprehensive review on neurokinin-1 receptor antagonism in breast cancer

Mutukuru Mayuri, Thangavel Mahalingam Vijayakumar.

Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancer types globally, and has caused more deaths in women. The undecapeptide substance P is participated in various physiological processes like emesis, pain, inflammation, antitumor activity, and also regulates the function of gastro intestinal tract and central nervous system by binding to NK1R. substance P (SP)/NK1R regulates the proliferation, migration, and metastasis of breast cancer cells and also controls the proliferation of endothelial cells for angiogenesis. It exerts an antiapoptotic influence as well. In breast cancer, NK1R is over expressed. It has been demonstrated that the NK1R antagonist inhibits the breast cancer cell proliferation in a concentration dependent manner, induces the cell death by apoptosis and inhibit angiogenesis. The antagonists of the NK1 receptor are safe and well tolerated. In this paper, we reviewed the extensive studies that have been done on the SP/NK1R system in breast cancer. In fact, only currently available are NK1R antagonist Aprepitant and its analogues. The research must, therefore, focus on drugs with elevated anti-tumor activity with lesser side effects. Modulating the function of the NK1 receptor as a therapeutic strategy is, therefore, the most attractive area of research for the design and creation of new molecules with important clinical values for the future.

Key words: Breast cancer; metastasis; neurokinin 1 receptor; pathogenesis; cell viability

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