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A study of sacrum with three pairs of sacral foramina in western India

Dharati M Kubavat, Shaileshkumar K Nagar, Chintan Lakhani, Srushti S Ruparelia, Shilpa Patel, Padma Varlekar.


Background: The sacrum is a large, triangular fused five sacral vertebrae and forms the postero-superior wall of the bony pelvis. Numerous anatomical variations of the sacrum have been reported including complete bilateral lumbarization of the first sacral vertebra in different race generates sacrum with three pairs of sacral foramina. There has never been reported among Gujarati population in Western India. These variations may be found in the living during radiological investigations for pain and neurological symptoms of patients or may be found during post mortem examination or during dissection of human body and osteology class for first M.B.B.S students.
Objective: The study was designed to know the prevalence of sacrum with three pairs of sacral foramina among Gujarati population in Western India as there is paucity of available literature. Considering the variation, we conduct this study as a prelude to any type of experimental work in biomechanics, for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in low back pain, spinal surgery and for interventional procedures like spinal anaesthesia and lumbar puncture.

Materials and Methods: Observational study was carried out on 189 dry human sacra of known sex(115 male and 74 female) were studied from Department of Anatomy, B.J. Medical college Ahmedabad, Government Dental college Ahmedabad, Medical college Vadodara and Government Medical College, Surat in Gujarat. Morphological study was done on the sacrum. The sacra consisting of four vertebral segments were selected. The specimens were then carefully examined and recorded.

Results: 189 dry human sacra were studied. Sacra with three pairs of sacral foramina were recorded. We founded 3 (1-Male, 2-Female) specimens of sacrum with three pairs of sacral foramina representing Bilateral complete lumbarization of first sacral vertebra. The degree of lumbarization varied: Bilateral complete lumbarization in 3 specimens and did not found Unilateral complete lumbarization specimen.

Conclusion: The present study shows that the incidence of sacrum with three pairs of sacral foramina among Gujarati population in Western India is 1.58 %.The knowledge of this anatomical variation is of paramount importance to spinal surgeons, radiologists, forensic experts, morphologists and clinical anatomists

Key words: Congenital Anomaly; Lumbarization; Sacral Foramina; Variations of Sacrum

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