These findings could give a spot light on the possible links between biochemical, hormonal and histopathological changes and their impact on male camel seasonal infertility. Seventy four dromedary camel bulls were used during rutting and non-rutting season. Serum and epididymal fluid analysis for creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), total testosterone (T), tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) hormones were estimated. Evaluation of epididymal spermatozoa and histopathological examination associated with histomorphometric analysis of the tissue samples were done. Serum and epididymal fluid GPX, CK and LDH, T level were significantly high (P>0.05) in rutting season. Meanwhile, thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) levels increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the rutting than the non-rutting season in serum only. Motility and livability of camel epididymal spermatozoa collected during rutting season were significantly (P< 0.05) higher than in non-rutting season. Morphologically abnormal spermatozoa and those with abnormal acrosomes in breeding season were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than non-breeding season. Histopathological and histomorphometric analysis of camel testes and epididymis indicated various patho-physiological conditions including chronic orchitis and/or epididymitis, various degrees of degeneration, necrosis, atrophy and hyperplasia of leydig cells associated with disturbance in spermatogenesis were reported in rutting and non -rutting seasons. Furthermore, the average height of the seminiferous epithelium layer, thickness of propria tunica and tubular diameter were estimated and the proportion of seminiferous tubules, interstitial tissue, lymphatic vessels and blood vessels of each camel testicle were recorded. Elevation of the ambient temperature during non- rutting season seemed to play the main role in camel reproductive activities through disturbance of the physiological activities so, the most of testicular changes might be reversible and transient except severe pathological alterations. The evaluation of biochemical and hormonal parameters in serum may consider some what a reflection to their levels in epididymal fluid that could be a new biomarker of gonadal function and reproductive performance in camels.
Key words: male, dromedary camel, CK, LDH, GPX, Testosterone, Thyroid, seminal analysis, histopathology, histomorphometry.