Camel calf’s diarrhea is considered the chief economic loss in the camelid population. There is currently no vaccine licensed to prevent colibacillosis in camel calves. The new era of bacterial antibiotic-resistant explains the treatment failure and the high mortality and morbidity associated with the disease. Current protective treatments have thus far limited efficacy and need to be replaced. Due to their antimicrobial properties and safety, natural products are recently finding a capital role in infection management.
The current study explores E. coli F17 susceptibility as a clinical strain isolated from diarrheic camel calves to a wide panel of natural products.
Agar diffusion method, Integrity of cell membrane, hydrophobicity of bacterial surface, biofilm assays, and motility were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Coffea, Retama raetam, Moringa oleifera, Juniperus phoenicea, Uritica dioica, Camellia sinensis, Lavandula angustifolia and Cuminum cyminum extracts against isolated bacteria.
Interestingly, All 8 tested extracts have the damaging ability of E. coli F17’s cell membrane and cause the nucleic acid release after 12 hours. E. coli F17 strain has the surface of hydrophobicity which changed after contact with extracts of the plant. Moreover, the motility of the studied bacteria changed after exposure to all plant extracts.
This study demonstrated that all extracts, exempt Uritica dioica, can remove up to 50% biofilm of E. coli biomass as compared with the control. Natural extracts can be used as potential antimicrobial agents to mitigate diarrhea in camel calves.
Key words: E. coli, Camel calves, Diarrhea, Antibacterial, Hydrophobicity