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Open Vet J. 2023; 13(5): 663-667

Evaluation of proximodistal patellar alignment in small breed dogs with or without patellar luxation using the Insall-Salvati, Caton-Deschamps and Blackburne-Peel indices

Radka S. Garnoeva.

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Patellar luxation in dogs is thought to be related to proximally (patella alta) or distally (patella baja) positioned patella in the femoral trochlea.
The aim of the present study was to calculate and compare the values of Insall-Salvati, Caton-Deschamps and Blackburne-Peel indices in orthopedically healthy dogs and dogs with various grade of medial patellar luxation from small breeds on mediolateral radiographs.
The study included 87 dogs (138 stifles) from four breeds (Mini-Pinschers, Pomeranians, Chihuahuas and Yorkshire terriers). Seventy joints (53 dogs) were diagnosed with various grade of medial patellar luxation (MPL) and another 68 joints from 34 dogs, free of orthopedic or neurological disorders, were used as controls. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic value of the three indices.
The Caton-Deschamps and Blackburne-Peel indices showed no significant difference between healthy and MPL joints. The ROC analysis showed that all three studied indices of proximodistal patellar position had poor diagnostic value with low sensitivity and specificity of respective cutoff values.
In dogs from the studied four small breeds, the proximodistal Insall-Salvati, Caton-Deschamps and Blackburne-Peel patellar indices could not discriminate reliably between healthy stifle joints and joints with medial patellar luxation.

Key words: Medial patellar luxation, Insall-Salvati index, Caton-Deschamps index, Blackburne-Peel index, Small dog breeds

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