Introduction: Plasmapheresis is often used as a therapy in the treatment of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). TTP is manifested in thrombotic microangiopathy, consumed thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia and acute kidney injury with HUS development, neurologic dysfunction, and fever. Case report: we will present a case of a patient with acute kidney injury and refractory TTP at the beginning of hospitalization, subsequently manifested in secondary nephrotic syndrome. The patient was a female, 39 years of age, who as an emergency case was referred from the hospital in East Sarajevo to the Clinic of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism Disorders of the Clinical Center University of Sarajevo with suspected TTP. A few days before hospitalization she had a fever and vomiting, and therefore consulted her physician. She was hospitalized due to severe general condition, generalized edema, visible body hematomas, and diuresis amounting to 600 ml/12 hours. Laboratory results on admission were as follows: Leukocytes 19.5, Erythrocytes 3.23, Hemoglobin 103, Hematocrit 28.8%, Platelets 65.4 with few schistocytes and 2 reticulocytes, Sodium 140 mmol/L,, Potassium 4.5 mmol/L, Calcium 1.90 mmol/L, Glucose 7.9 mmol/L, Urea 37.5 mmol/L, Creatinine 366 umol/L,, Bilirubin 19.0 umol/L, Lactate dehydrogenase 1194 U /L. The patient was communicative, in cardiopulmonary sufficient state. Central venous catheter was placed in the right jugular vein and the first plasmapheresis was performed. During the hospitalization 38 plasmapheresis treatments with frozen plasma were performed, followed by three Rituximab treatment cycles. After the last plasmapheresis treatment a platelet count was 138. Also, parameters of the renal function were in their referent values. At the beginning of the treatment proteinuria was 19.6 g/24 hours urine. We were faced with a dilemma whether renal biopsy should be repeated in the future given that it might be the case of primary and not secondary nephrotic syndrome. Controlled proteinuria was 4.7g after plasmapheresis. The patient used only Prednisolone at a dose of 10 mg daily and although initially diagnosed with acute kidney injury she was not treated with dialysis. Conclusion: early diagnosis and early start of plasmapheresis therapy is vital for treatment of patients with acute kidney injury and TTP (HUS). A small number of patients is refractory to plasmapheresis and introducing Rituximab and plasmapheresis treatment is recommended.
acute kidney injury, HUS, TTP, plasmapheresis.